Special characters that can be used to manipulate commands in the command line include
1. Backslash (\)
2. Greater than (>)
3. Less than (<)
4. Pipe (|)
5. Ampersand (&)
Character prevents the shell from treating another character as a special character through a process called backslash escaping.
This allows us to split a command statement across multiple lines. When we place the backslash at the end of a line and then press Enter, we can continue the statement on the next line. The backslash prevents the shell from treating the Enter keystroke – or new line character – as a special character.
$echo Long pieces of test may not always fit onto to a single \
Line of the command line interface, so it becomes \
Necessary to split them across multiple lines using \
Greater than (>):
Allows us to direct the standard output of a command to a file or a device such as a printer instead of to the terminal screen.
$ ls –l /usr/home > userdirs
Less than (<):
Allows us to send the contents of a file to a command as its standard output.
$ sort –d < list
Pipe line (|):
Direct the output of one command to the input of another command.
$ cat good | grep ‘India’
Character at the end of a command statement allows us to run commands in the background.
$ find / -name che &
If we want to use special character in command line text without the shell recognizing them as special characters, we have to enclose them with a backslash (\).
$echo Tours \& Accommodation
Tours & Accommodation
This eg shows an ‘echo’ command in which the ‘echo’ text contains an ampersand. There’s backslash
In front of the ampersand, which prevents the shell from treating it as a special character.